Multilocus sequence Typing Scheme for Enterococucus faecalis Reveals Hospital-Adapted genetic Complexes in Background of High Rates of Recombination

  1. Ruiz-Garbajosa, P. 5
  2. Bonten, M.J.M. 4
  3. Robinson, D.A. 3
  4. Top, J. 4
  5. Nallapareddy, S.R. 1
  6. Torres, C. 2
  7. Coque, T.M. 5
  8. Cantón, R. 5
  9. Baquero, F. 5
  10. Murray, B.E. 1
  11. Del Campo, R. 5
  12. Willems, R.J.L. 4
  1. 1 University of Texas System

    University of Texas System

    Austin, Estados Unidos


  2. 2 Universidad de La Rioja

    Universidad de La Rioja

    Logroño, España


  3. 3 New York Medical College

    New York Medical College

    Valhalla, Estados Unidos


  4. 4 University Medical Center Utrecht

    University Medical Center Utrecht

    Utrecht, Holanda


  5. 5 Hospital Ramón y Cajal

    Hospital Ramón y Cajal

    Madrid, España


Journal of Clinical Microbiology

ISSN: 0095-1137

Year of publication: 2006

Volume: 44

Issue: 6

Pages: 2220-2228

Type: Article

DOI: 10.1128/JCM.02596-05 PMID: 16757624 SCOPUS: 2-s2.0-33745136790 WoS: WOS:000238332900044 GOOGLE SCHOLAR

More publications in: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Institutional repository: lock_openOpen access editor


Cited by

  • Scopus Cited by: 295 (07-06-2023)
  • Web of Science Cited by: 270 (03-06-2023)
  • Dimensions Cited by: 310 (30-03-2023)

JCR (Journal Impact Factor)

  • Year 2006
  • Journal Impact Factor: 3.445
  • Journal Impact Factor without self cites: 2.884
  • Article influence score: 0.0
  • Best Quartile: Q1
  • Area: MICROBIOLOGY Quartile: Q1 Rank in area: 21/89 (Ranking edition: SCIE)

SCImago Journal Rank

  • Year 2006
  • SJR Journal Impact: 2.212
  • Best Quartile: Q1
  • Area: Microbiology (medical) Quartile: Q1 Rank in area: 7/102


(Data updated as of 30-03-2023)
  • Total citations: 310
  • Recent citations: 45
  • Relative Citation Ratio (RCR): 7.76
  • Field Citation Ratio (FCR): 37.3


A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on seven housekeeping genes was used to investigate the epidemiology and population structure of Enterococcus faecalis. MLST of 110 isolates from different sources and geographic locations revealed 55 different sequence types that grouped into four major clonal complexes (CC2, CC9, CC10, and CC21) by use of eBURST. Two of these clonal complexes, CC2 and CC9, are particularly fit in the hospital environment, as CC2 includes the previously described BVE clonal complex identified by an alternative MLST scheme and CC9 includes exclusively isolates from hospitalized patients. Identical alleles were found in genetically diverse isolates with no linkage disequilibrium, while the different MLST loci gave incongruent phylogenetic trees. This demonstrates that recombination is an important mechanism driving genetic variation in E. faecalis and suggests an epidemic population structure for E. faecalis. Our novel MLST scheme provides an excellent tool for investigating local and short-term epidemiology as well as global epidemiology, population structure, and genetic evolution of E. faecalis. Copyright © 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.