Spanish Adaptation of the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI). Psychometric properties of the patient and therapist forms (WAI-P and WAI-T)

  1. Nelson Andrade González
  2. Alberto Fernández Liria
Anales de psicología

ISSN: 0212-9728

Year of publication: 2015

Volume: 31

Issue: 2

Pages: 524-533

Type: Article

DOI: 10.6018/ANALESPS.31.2.177961 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: Anales de psicología


Cited by

  • Scopus Cited by: 15 (20-05-2023)
  • Dialnet Metrics Cited by: 3 (31-05-2023)
  • Web of Science Cited by: 14 (26-05-2023)
  • Dimensions Cited by: 12 (15-03-2023)

JCR (Journal Impact Factor)

  • Year 2015
  • Journal Impact Factor: 0.574
  • Journal Impact Factor without self cites: 0.494
  • Article influence score: 0.131
  • Best Quartile: Q4
  • Area: PSYCHOLOGY Quartile: Q4 Rank in area: 68/76 (Ranking edition: SCIE)
  • Area: PSYCHOLOGY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Quartile: Q4 Rank in area: 99/129 (Ranking edition: SSCI)

SCImago Journal Rank

  • Year 2015
  • SJR Journal Impact: 0.382
  • Best Quartile: Q3
  • Area: Psychology (miscellaneous) Quartile: Q3 Rank in area: 118/251


  • Social Sciences: A

Scopus CiteScore

  • Year 2015
  • CiteScore of the Journal : 1.3
  • Area: Psychology (all) Percentile: 41


(Data updated as of 15-03-2023)
  • Total citations: 12
  • Recent citations: 5
  • Field Citation Ratio (FCR): 2.5


The working alliance is one of the most widely studied con-structs in psychotherapy process research. The purpose of our study was to adapt the patient and therapist forms of the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-P and WAI-T) into Spanish. Both measurement instruments were translated into Spanish through a systematic translation process. The psy-chometric properties of the instruments were evaluated in both a pilot study and a clinical study involving Spanish outpatients with depressive disorders and their therapists. In the clinical study, patients completed the Spanish-language Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) prior to initiating ther-apy and after the third and tenth psychotherapy sessions. High average scores were obtained with the Spanish-language WAI-P and WAI-T. A large number of individual items correlated satisfactorily with the overall score for the corresponding subscale. Both measures demonstrated excel-lent reliability (internal consistency) and convergent validity. There were some limitations in the discriminant validity of the measures vs. measures of empathy. Regarding predictive validity, the overall WAI-P and the Task subscale of the WAI-T separately explained a moderate percentage of the variance in patient change in the BDI after the tenth psychotherapy ses-sion. These results were satisfactory and consistent with those obtained in studies using the English-language WAI

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