Antimicrobial resistance in recent fecal enterococci from healthy volunteers and food handlers in Spain: Genes and phenotypes.

  1. Del Campo, R. 1
  2. Ruiz-Garbajosa, P. 1
  3. Sánchez-Moreno, M.P. 2
  4. Baquero, F. 1
  5. Torres, C. 3
  6. Cantón, R. 1
  7. Coque, T.M. 1
  1. 1 Hospital Ramón y Cajal

    Hospital Ramón y Cajal

    Madrid, España


  2. 2 Serv. Municipal de Higiene de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  3. 3 Universidad de La Rioja

    Universidad de La Rioja

    Logroño, España


Microbial Drug Resistance

ISSN: 1076-6294

Year of publication: 2003

Volume: 9

Issue: 1

Pages: 47-60

Type: Article

More publications in: Microbial Drug Resistance


Cited by

  • Scopus Cited by: 40 (08-05-2023)
  • Web of Science Cited by: 44 (04-06-2023)

JCR (Journal Impact Factor)

  • Year 2003
  • Journal Impact Factor: 2.32
  • Journal Impact Factor without self cites: 2.134
  • Article influence score: 0.0
  • Best Quartile: Q2
  • Area: PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACY Quartile: Q2 Rank in area: 57/185 (Ranking edition: SCIE)
  • Area: MICROBIOLOGY Quartile: Q2 Rank in area: 28/84 (Ranking edition: SCIE)
  • Area: INFECTIOUS DISEASES Quartile: Q2 Rank in area: 11/41 (Ranking edition: SCIE)

SCImago Journal Rank

  • Year 2003
  • SJR Journal Impact: 1.303
  • Best Quartile: Q1
  • Area: Microbiology Quartile: Q1 Rank in area: 24/109
  • Area: Immunology Quartile: Q1 Rank in area: 38/175
  • Area: Microbiology (medical) Quartile: Q1 Rank in area: 9/100
  • Area: Medicine (miscellaneous) Quartile: Q1 Rank in area: 162/2980
  • Area: Pharmacology Quartile: Q1 Rank in area: 36/304


Susceptibility patterns to 15 different antibiotics and the presence of resistance genes were evaluated in recent fecal Enterococcus isolates recovered from 42 healthy volunteers (HV) and 43 food-handlers (FH). A total of 142 Enterococcus faecalis, 74 Enterococcus faecium, and 23 Enterococcus spp. with different antibiotic susceptibility patterns were studied. A higher percentage of resistance for moxifloxacin, erythromycin, glycopeptides and high-level resistance (HLR) to gentamicin were observed in the FH group. Ampicillin- or linezolid-resistant isolates were not recovered in any of the groups. The tet(M) gene was found in 96% and in 85% of tetracycline-resistant isolates from HV and FH, respectively. HLR-kanamycin was mediated by aph(3′)-IIIa, or aac(6′)-aph(2″), or both genes in all isolates from HV group and in 86% from FH group. The aac(6′)-aph(2″) gene was found in all HLR-gentamicin isolates. Ninety-one percent of HV and 71% of FH erythromycin-resistant isolates harbored the erre(B) gene (erythromycin MIC range of 8-128 μg/ml), whereas erre(A), erm(C), or mef(A) genes were not detected. Coexistence of erre(B), aph(3′)-IIIa, and tet(M) genes was observed in 17% of the isolates of both groups. The HLR-gentamicin isolates presented unrelated PFGE patterns while 2 out of 3 vana A E. faecium isolates showed an indistinguishable SmaI-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. This study shows that despite 4 years of official banning of antibiotic growth promoters in animals, enterococci isolated from FH are more resistant than those from HV. This suggests the permanence of resistant clones or transferable resistance elements in farms and a possible exchange between food products and humans, or eventually the long-term permanence of certain clones in the FH intestinal tract.