Disparity in general nutrition knowledge among students of Food and Nutritional Sciences, graduates and experienced dieticians

  1. Sanz Rojo, Sara 1
  2. Garicano Vilar, Elena 1
  3. San Mauro Martin, Ismael 1
  1. 1 Research Centres in Nutrition and Health. Spain
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results: JONNPR

ISSN: 2529-850X

Ano de publicación: 2020

Volume: 5

Número: 1

Páxinas: 61-80

Tipo: Artigo

DOI: 10.19230/JONNPR.3284 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openAcceso aberto editor

Outras publicacións en: Journal of Negative and No Positive Results: JONNPR


Background. Applying nutrition knowledge and skills to all aspects of health care are extremely important. The quantity and quality of formalized nutrition education is shrinking in curricula of health professions. Objective. To describe the level of general nutrition knowledge in students enrolled in the B.Sc. degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetics in Spain and already graduated dieticians, and compare knowledge status across different occupations. The secondary aim was to investigate the variation in knowledge among the cohort according to academic year, years of experience and area of expertise. Methods. Food and Nutritional Sciences students, dieticians and other health professionals in Spain were invited to participate in an online survey in 2018. The questionnaire comprised 7 relevant sociodemographic  questions and 16 items related to personal beliefs and dietary aspects, eating recommendations, degrees of  evidence and studies funding. Subjects were divided into different groups for analysis, according to  discipline, academic year, years of experience and area of expertise. Results. 364 subjects participated in the study. Overall, dieticians suggested there is no ideal distribution of  macronutrients along the day, Harvard plate is the guide with the greatest scientific support for the Spanish  population and agreed on meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials to be the study type with the greatest  degree of evidence.44.5% of dieticians asserted that studies financed by the industry have no credibility or reliability and he most experienced ones (>20 years’ experience) agreed that pharmaceutical industry and food industry with high  conflict of interest were the source of funding of high impact studies. On the other hand, students believed  university contributes an outdated knowledge in the majority of the content. Freshmen and sophomore  students supported eating 4-5 times/day, while juniors and seniors would personalize the recommendation  depending on the patient. Conclusion. The general nutrition knowledge level appeared to be disparate between students and practicing dieticians. Overall knowledge was influenced by discipline, academic year and area of expertise. Strategies to fill the gaps in nutrition education are needed.   

Referencias bibliográficas

  • Özdoğan Y, Yardımcı H, Özçelik AÖ. Assessment of Nutrition Knowledge among University Students in Ankara. J Sci Res Reports. 2018;20(4):1–8.
  • DiMaria-Ghalili RA, Mirtallo JM, Tobin BW, Hark L, Van Horn L, Palmer CA. Challenges and opportunities for nutrition education and training in the health care professions: Intraprofessional and interprofessional call to action. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99:1184S–1193S.
  • Kris-Etherton PM, Akabas SR, Douglas P, Kohlmeier M, Laur C, Lenders CM, et al. Nutrition Competencies in Health Professionals’ Education and Training: A New Paradigm. Adv Nutr. 2015;6:83–87.
  • Kris-Etherton PM, Akabas SR, Bales CW, Bistrian B, Braun L, Edwards MS, et al. The need to advance nutrition education in the training of health care professionals and recommended research to evaluate implementation and effectiveness. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99:1153S–1166S.
  • Frenk J, Chen L, Bhutta ZA, Cohen J, Crisp N, Evans T, et al. Health professionals for a new century: Ttransforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. Lancet. 2010;376:1923–1958.
  • Sacks GS. The Shrinking of Formalized Nutrition Education in Health Professions Curricula and Postgraduate Training. J Parenter Enter Nutr. 2017;41(2):217–25.
  • Shah K, Hunter ML, Fairchild RM, Morgan MZ. A comparison of the nutritional knowledge of dental, dietetic and nutrition students. Br Dent J. 2011;210:33–8.
  • Cleveland LE, Cook DA, Krebs-Smith SM, Friday J. Method for assessing food intakes in terms of servings based on food guidance. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:1254S–1263S.
  • Talati Z, Pettigrew S, Moore S, Pratt IS. Adults and children prefer a plate food guide relative to a pyramid. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017;26(1):169–74.
  • Chinese Nutrition Society. Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pagoda. J Am Diet Assoc [Internet]. 2000;100(8):886–7. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002822300002571? via%3Dihub
  • Bush MAA, Martineau C, Pronk JA, Brulé D. Eating well with Canada’s food guide: “A tool for the times.” Can J Diet Pract Res. 2007;68(2):92–6.
  • Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). Here’s what food guides around the world look like [Internet]. [cited 2019 Sep 24]. Available from: https://www.cbc.ca/news/health/canada-food-guide-international- guidelines-1.4962611
  • Yoshiike N, Hayashi F, Takemi Y, Mizoguchi K, Seino F. A new food guide in Japan: The Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. Nutr Rev. 2007;65(4):149–54.
  • Flemish Institute for Healthy Living. The food triangle and physical activity triangle: how and why? [Internet]. Brussels; 2017. p. 1–17. Available from: https://www.gezondleven.be/files/voeding/Healthy-Living-2017-Food- Triangle-en-PATriangle-how-and-why.pdf
  • Aranceta J, Serra-Majem L. Dietary guidelines for the Spanish population. Public Health Nutr. 2001;4:1403–8.
  • Harvard School of Public Health and Harvard Medical School. Healthy Eating Plate [Internet]. [cited 2019 Sep 24]. Available from: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-eating-plate/
  • Benson T, Lavelle F, Bucher T, McCloat A, Mooney E, Egan B, et al. The impact of nutrition and health claims on consumer perceptions and portion size selection: Results from a nationally representative survey. Nutrients. 2018;10(5):656.
  • Monteiro CA, Moubarac JC, Cannon G, Ng SW, Popkin B. Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system. Obes Rev. 2013;14:21–8.
  • Jones AL. The gluten-free diet: Fad or necessity? Diabetes Spectr. 2017;30(2):118–23.
  • St-Onge MP, Ard J, Baskin ML, Chiuve SE, Johnson HM, Kris-Etherton P, et al. Meal Timing and Frequency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135(9):e96–121.
  • Bowling A. Mode of questionnaire administration can have serious effects on data quality. J Public Health (Bangkok). 2005;27(3):281–91.
  • European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. EFSA J. 2010;8(3):1462.
  • Trumbo P, Schlicker S, Yates AA, Poos M. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102(11):1621–30.
  • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for protein. EFSA J. 2012;10(2):2557.
  • European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. EFSA J. 2010;8(3):1461.
  • Kunzmann AT, Coleman HG, Huang WY, Berndt SI. The association of lifetime alcohol use with mortality and cancer risk in older adults: A cohort study. PLoS Med. 2018;15(6):e1002585.
  • O’Keefe MD JH, Bhatti MD SK, Bajwa MD A, DiNicolantonio PharmD JJ, Lavie MD CJ. Alcohol and Cardiovascular Health: The Dose Makes the Poison...or the Remedy. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014;89(3):382–93.
  • Di Castelnuovo A, Costanzo S, Bagnardi V, Donati MB, Iacoviello L, De Gaetano G. Alcohol dosing and total mortality in men and women: An updated meta-analysis of 34 prospective studies. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(22):2437–45.
  • Ronksley PE, Brien SE, Turner BJ, Mukamal KJ, Ghali WA. Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011;342:d671.
  • Sanz Rojo S, Garicano Vilar E, San Mauro Martín I. Alcohol: Good for your heart, not for your health. Jounal Negat No Posit Results. 2019;4(1):1–4.