Early Mediterranean-Based Nutritional Intervention Reduces the Rate of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women: A Post-Hoc Analysis of the San Carlos Gestational Prevention Study

  1. Martin-O´Connor, Rocio
  2. Ramos-Leví, Ana M.
  3. Melero, Verónica
  4. Arnoriaga-Rodríguez, María
  5. Barabash, Ana
  6. Valerio, Johanna
  7. Del Valle, Laura
  8. De Miguel Novoa, María Paz
  9. Díaz, Angel
  10. Familiar, Cristina
  11. Moraga, Inmaculada
  12. Durán, Alejandra
  13. Cuesta, Martín
  14. Torrejón, Maria Jose
  15. Martinez-Novillo, Mercedes
  16. Marcuello, Clara
  17. Pazos, Mario
  18. Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel
  19. Matía-Martín, Pilar
  20. Calle-Pascual, Alfonso Luis
Dietetics and nutrition

Year of publication: 2024

Type: Article

DOI: 10.20944/PREPRINTS202405.1745.V1 GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor
Institutional repository: lock_openOpen access Editor


Obesity is a risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the most optimal type of nutritional intervention to prevent GDM in high-risk women is not clearly defined. This study investigates if nutritional treatment based on the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) before 12th gestational week (GW) in women at high risk due to a body mass index (BMI)≥25kg/m2, reduces the rate of GDM and metabolic syndrome (MetS) at 3 years postpartum. We performed a post-hoc analysis of the San Carlos Gestational Prevention Study. A total of 735 women with BMI≥25kg/m2 were evaluated between 2015-2018, 246 in standard diet control group (CG) and 489 in MedDiet intervention group (IG). The rate of GDM was significantly lower in IG compared to CG (25.1%vs31.7%;p=0.037). Postnatal follow-up was completed by 141 women in CG (57%) and 312 women in IG (64%). At 3 years postpartum, we observed a reduction (relative risk 95% confidence interval) in the rates of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (0.51 (0.28-0.92);p=0.019), obesity (0.51 (0.28-0.92),p=0.041), waist circumference (WC)≥89.5cm (0.54 (0.31-0.94);p=0.022) and MetS (0.56 (0.33-0.94);p=0.003). MedDiet reduces the rate of GDM and postpartum MetS in women with BMI)≥25kg/m2, suggesting that its implementation should be routinely recommended from the first GWs.